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Crisis? What crisis?
 

Reports such as this one http://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/jan/09/housing-crisis-tenants-shelter-private-rent on the housing crisis appear with alarming regularity. It is a complicated and highly political issue but it seems to me that it is more a matter of national priorities than of government action or inaction. We simply don’t put enough emphasis on the supply of affordable housing and the standard of living of those who are in need of it. At both the national and personal levels what do we want to spend our money on – basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter or other ‘needs’ such as nuclear missiles, foreign holidays, flash cars, Sky TV?

The government gets blamed but ‘in a democracy people get the government they deserve’ (Alexis de Toqueville 19th century French  political thinker). Any ‘visitor from outer space’ would have to conclude that we are an odd lot.

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People in Glass Houses
 

‘Modernism’ in architecture emerged in the early part of the twentieth century.  It has developed many strands but the common themes are functionality, rationality, man made materials, factory made components and a lack of ornamentation. In Britain it has always been met with an ambivalent, even suspicious, attitude – similar to the attitude held by many nowadays towards the European Union – a fraudulent foreign intellectual exercise!

Whilst the latest iteration of ‘modernist’ architecture is just about acceptable nowadays for certain buildings such as schools and hospitals it is still rare to see it used for privately owned houses.  It is even rarer to see that sub-species of the ‘modernist’ house – the ‘glass house’.

Other designed objects such as ‘Concorde’, sports cars, laptop computers, fashion etc can all be totally ‘modern’ but when it comes to ‘home sweet home’ the response is generally a polite ‘no thank you’.  This is probably for a complex set of reasons that include our national traditions and character, our insularity as an island nation and the fact that privately owned houses are the main asset that many families possess so need to be ‘marketable’ (ie ‘traditional’).

I reflected on this when I read of the death of the London ‘modernist’ architect John Winter.  He is best known for the Cor-Ten steel (a ‘rusty’ carbon steel) and glass house that he built in Highgate in 1967-69.  This was one of a celebrated group of steel and glass houses built in this mature part of north London which included Michael Hopkin’s house in Hampstead (1976) and Spence and Webster’s pair of courtyard houses in Belsize Park (1978).  I was lucky enough to work for Spence and Webster in one of the Belsize Park houses when I came to London in 1985 – 86 when they used it as an office.

Left: John Winter Cor-Ten House, Highgate, London 1967-69 Centre: Michael Hopkins Hopkins House, Hampstead, London 1976 Right: Spence and Webster, Courtyard Houses, Belsize Park, London 1978

Left: John Winter Cor-Ten House, Highgate, London 1967-69 Centre: Michael Hopkins Hopkins House, Hampstead, London 1976 Right: Spence and Webster, Courtyard Houses, Belsize Park, London 1978

These houses were ‘tolerated’ by being almost invisible (the Spence and Webster houses are hidden behind a tall wall) or neutral (the Hopkins House is see through / reflective as if it somehow isn’t really there).  Contrast this with America where the ‘glass house’ is a celebrated cultural phenomenon dating back to the ‘granddaddy’ of all ‘glass houses’ – the Farnsworth House by Mies van der Rohe (1945-51).  This famous line runs through the Eames House (1949), Philip Johnson’s ‘Glass House’ (1949) and, my favourite, the Stahl House by Pierre Koenig (1959) which sits in the Hollywood Hills with a commanding view of Los Angeles below.

Top Left: Mies van der Rohe, Farnsworth House, Plano, Illinois 1945-51 Top Centre: Philip Johnson, Glass House, New Canaan, Conneticut 1949 Top Right: Charles and Ray Eames, Eames House, Corona del Mar, California 1949 Bottom Left and Right: Pierre Koenig, Stahl House, Hollywood, Los Angeles, California 1959

Top Left: Mies van der Rohe, Farnsworth House, Plano, Illinois 1945-51 Top Centre: Philip Johnson, Glass House, New Canaan, Conneticut 1949 Top Right: Charles and Ray Eames, Eames House, Corona del Mar, California 1949 Bottom Left and Right: Pierre Koenig, Stahl House, Hollywood, Los Angeles, California 1959

What does the future hold for people who want to live in ‘glass houses’?  There is certainly no technical impediment since glass technology has kept one step ahead of the demands of the Building Regulations for low carbon design through triple glazing with argon / krypton / xenon gas filled cavities and warm edge spacer bars, solar control and low emissivity coatings.  Flat roofing technology, insulation materials and steel coatings are vastly superior to what they were in the days of the early ‘modernists’.  The main impediment to building a ‘glass house’ is confidence and desire and the commissioning of a high quality design that will obtain planning permission.

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Your Paintings
 

In another example of the wonders of the information age, the UK’s national collection of 212,000 oil paintings is now online at ‘Your Paintings’ – a joint initiative between the Public Catalogue Foundation http://www.thepcf.org.uk/ and the BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/yourpaintings/. The ‘Your Paintings’ website can be searched by artist, subject, style etc.

Whilst there is no substitute for seeing the real thing it is still wonderful to be able to view high quality photographs of the national collection without having to travel the length and breadth of the country to do so. In any case at any one time 80% of the national collection is not on view.

My father, John Miller RSA PPRSW (1911 – 1975) was a Scottish artist who studied at the Glasgow School of Art and taught there from 1944 – 1974. He was influenced by French impressionism and known for his still life and landscape paintings. I knew several of his works are in public collections but not how many, which paintings or where they are. Through ‘Your Paintings’ I discovered that there are fourteen of his paintings in public collections – some of which I had never seen.

Another of his paintings, which I can’t remember but would love to see, was an oil portrait of me as a child which was sold at exhibition to a private collector. Perhaps private collections will be added to ‘Your Paintings’ or something similar will be set up in due course for privately held paintings which will allow it to re-emerge after all these years.

John Miller Fading Poppies, Rhu Royal Scottish Academy of Art and Architecture Collection

John Miller Fading Poppies, Rhu   Royal Scottish Academy of Art and Architecture Collection

John Miller Showery Weather, St Andrews Glasgow Museums Collection

John Miller Showery Weather, St Andrews    Glasgow Museums Collection

 

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If it’s Wednesday it must be Vicenza
 

The Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508 – 1580) is widely held to be one of the most influential individuals in the history of Western architecture.  His work is smooth and elegant with harmonic proportions and often symmetrical planning being influenced by classical Rome and especially the Roman architect Vitruvius whose treatise on architecture in ten books De architectura became available in Italian translation around 1520.

Palladio was, in many ways, the first great professional architect and from 1550 onwards he carried out an ever increasing series of commissions for all types of buildings including palaces, churches and villas.  He published many books – the most famous of which is I Quattro Libri dell’Architecttura (The Four Books of Architecture) which in the centuries that followed spread his influence.  In London Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren embraced the ‘Palladian’ style and even the United States Capitol building and the White House in Washington DC are ‘Palladian’ style buildings.

Palladio’s reputation is founded on his skill as a designer of villas.  He was responsible for the re-birth of the classical villa in Italy and designed and built many fine examples in the Veneto region north and west of Venice.  Amazingly not only do many of these villas still exist as family homes (true sustainability) but many are open to the public on certain days and at certain times of the year.

A tour of the best examples of Palladio’s Italian villas is my idea of a holiday – especially in the spring when the microclimate in the Veneto is at its best with sunshine, flowers and comfortable temperatures of around 20 degrees.  Armed with no more than return air tickets and a car hire booking Diana and I flew to Verona and embarked on a leisurely circuit of the region loosely structured around the opening times of the villas we planned to see.

We started with a few days in the beautiful city of Verona amongst its layers of history which include the Roman amphitheatre (the Arena).  From Verona we drove in an unhurried clockwise direction.  The limited opening times for the villas allowed us to meander along exploring and spending time in places we would never otherwise have visited.

After an overnight stay in the hilltown of Asolo we started with the Villa Barbaro in the village of Maser (open Tuesday, Saturday and Sunday) located where the lower plain of the Veneto becomes more hilly as it approaches the foothills of the Alps.  The villa Barbaro is single symmetrical structure with a central residential building and side wings containing farm buildings.  The central residence features four engaged Ionic columns adapted from the Temple of Fortuna Virilis in Rome.  I was struck by how successfully some quite ordinary requirements had been configured into an amazing set-piece of architectural composition set into the hillside for increased dramatic effect.  Quite apart from the architecture the visit was worth it just to see the interior which contains magnificent frescos – principally by Paolo Verone.

Diana at the Villa Barbaro in the rain

Diana at the Villa Barbaro in the rain

Villa Foscari (‘La Malcontenta’)

Villa Foscari (‘La Malcontenta’)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We followed this with the Villa Foscari (‘La Malcontenta’) (open Tuesday and Saturday) which sits on the banks of the Brenta river near the Venice lagoon.  It was is some respects a surprise that Palladio built in this location at this time since his classical architectural language, which was inspired by Rome, was seen as a threat to the individuality of Venice.  Sometimes referred to as ‘the most beautiful house in the world’ the Villa Foscari has a tall monumental monolithic structure with a central portico and pediment allowing it to completely command its surroundings.  Internally the building is centred on a lofty cross shaped hall with a sequence of more intimate spaces around it.  Various theories abound on the origin of the name ‘La Malcontenta’.  One of them is that the wife of one of the original owners was banished here for living too loosely in Venice!

We continued our journey to Vicenza.  Palladio is to Vicenza what Mackintosh is to Glasgow or Gaudi is to Barcelona and the city is full of fine examples of his buildings.  Three organised guided tours can be taken to visit some of Palladio’s most important works in and around the city but we walked the city ourselves which allowed us to continue at our leisurely pace.  I was most impressed by the imaginative brilliance of the composition of the Basilica Palladiana in the Piazza dei Signori – a project which was in fact the re-cladding and buttressing of the collapsing old town hall!

Villa Capra (‘La Rotunda’)

Villa Capra (‘La Rotunda’)

Outside the city we visited the Villa Capra (‘La Rotunda’) (open Wednesday) which sits on the top of a hill allowing its four symmetrical facades to look out over the countryside.  The building was designed as a summer house – surely the grandest and most sublime summer house of all time.  The plan has centralised circular halls with wings and porticos expanding on all four sides.  The central dome, one of Palladio’s most famous motifs, was itself inspired by the Pantheon of ancient Rome.

By this time we’d seen enough Palladio and it was time to come home.  We returned with the sense that it was a real treat to see ‘in the flesh’, so to speak, these buildings whose influence has been so far reaching – forming an important link between classical Rome and the classical revival in Europe and beyond.